A government is an association of individuals who have the authority to govern in a particular territory, based on the legislative administrative law. This territory can be a state, a nation or province within an already developed country, or an unorganized region. The government can be many types of: absolute, constitutional, proportional, decentralized or centralized. Within these categories, however, there are also many variations. And although the concept of government is quite broad, there are actually three main types.
Absolute governments are ruled by one single governing body. These governments are considered the most powerful since they possess the entire power. Some examples of absolute governments include Great Britain, Canada and the United States. The head of state is generally a figure nominated by the elected provincial or territorial legislature and may also come from a special category of public office.
Absolute governments may not have direct involvement in making laws. But, they do control the formulation of the legislation through the political parties through their policies, programs, mandates and decisions. In such cases, the government may have some interventionist or dictatorial powers and may have control over the formulation of policy. For instance, China has a military dictatorship but at the same time has a set of social policies and a market economy.
Constitutional governments are ruled by a constitution that establishes the basic principles and structure of the country. In modern times, most constitution governments have been replaced by constitutional monarchies which are derived from past constitutions. In addition to direct rule by a monarch, a constitution is also formed by a consultative assembly that is elected. In most modern times, representatives of the people are chosen for the consultative assembly and serve as its president and vice president.
There are five types of constitutional monarchies. In a constitutional monarchy, the absolute ruler must abdicate his throne and consent to a general election for the replacement. He may also choose a council to advise him on decisions. A constitution normally sets out the fundamental principles that must be upheld by the government. The head of the institution usually acts as its representative in the legislative and judicial processes.
An absolute monarch is the ruler chosen by the people. He may choose his own ministers, Cabinet and the head of the armed forces. Absolute monarchs usually rule for life and cannot be impeached except by the general population or the judicial courts. They are hereditary thus there is a need for a bloodline that can rule for a long time. The hereditary leadership of an absolute monarchy is strengthened through the succession laws.