Types of Government
A government is an entity or body of individuals, typically an nation, that governs an entire organized society, usually a state. There are many kinds of government, with the most famous being constitutional government, central government, decentralized government and sovereign government. Government structure varies significantly from one country to another, ranging from simple democracy to absolute monarchy. Many political parties also exist, representing the various interests of citizens in a political party system. Political parties can be divided into many different branches such as national, regional and local government.
The concept of democracy is a popular term used to describe government structure. It is the principle that government can rule over people by peacefully elected representatives of the population exercising their right of majority rule. This is considered by many to be the foundation of democracy. A representative government, for instance, is representative of the people, a representative of a common interest and they enjoy a certain degree of equality among them, however they still enjoy a privileged position compared to other citizens because they are chosen by the majority of citizens for that particular interest. If there are no majorities in a country, then a minority government must take over and establish a regime of legitimacy.
One of the major characteristics of democracy is freedom of choice, or popular control, where political parties are allowed to set their own agendas and make policies that are in line with their personal values and beliefs. In the United States, a healthy democracy would ensure that there are limits on the power of popular institutions like political parties and corporations. Some political parties may wish to increase social welfare spending or reduce taxes on businesses, but this would require popular consent and the approval of a majority of citizens. In monarchies, a monarch acts on the instructions of the powerful House of Royalty and it is rare for a monarch to do anything that would threaten the interests of the House of Saud.
On the other hand, an absolute monarchy has nothing to offer beyond the institution of formal government. Monarchs may choose their own ministers, conduct government policy, and even pick their own Supreme Court Justices. Absolute monarchies may grant their subjects privileges, immunities, and basic freedoms, but these benefits are not available to any of their subjects except the immediate family members who have been chosen for the position by the monarch. This can often mean the exclusion of women and minorities.
As we have seen throughout the history of twentieth century and the first two decades of the new century, there have been two main types of governments – absolute dictatorship and democracy. Absolute dictators and former rulers of various Latin American countries such as Argentina, Chile, and Equador are generally described by their opponents as “dictators” and “tyrants” because they institute policies that most people would consider to be absolute. These dictators use force and terror to maintain their power. There is nothing inherently wrong with calling a ruler an “empire” or a “tyrant”, if that terminology suits the language of the time, because such terms accurately describe the historical practices of a select few. However, when those who use these descriptions try to apply those ideas to our current period, they alienate most people’s sympathy because it seems to suggest that any leader, whether he is actually using military force or not, is guilty of committing an act of tyranny.
As far as types of government are concerned, the two most recognized types are democracy and absolute monarchy. A new idea gaining in popularity in modern times is called democracy triad; this consists of democracy, multiparty elections, and multipartisan rule. If elected officials fail to follow the will of the people, they are removed from office and replaced by another elected official. The main difference between democracy and a military dictatorship is that no one can legitimately become a dictator unless he invades his country or is accused of crimes against peace and international public agreement.