A government is the political subdivision or body of government headed by a president, usually a hereditary , which exercises supreme power and authority. Such a government exists in reality as an entity or set of human institutions having political authority. It may be represented in terms of a parliament, governorates, empires, or even constituent assemblies. The most famous among these entities are the U.S. and England. A government structure is a formal organization chartered by, or created by, a constitution for the governments generally recognized as international.
A representative democracy means that the people are allowed to participate actively in political life through voting for representatives to serve on their assemblies. The right to vote for representatives to serve on their assemblies, or for members of the legislature, forms the basic right of citizens. In contrast, a monarchy is ruled by a monarch, which is hereditary. In the last analysis, a government is a public service for citizens as well as for the nation.
As we can see from this discussion, a government may be either a representative democracy or a constitutional monarchy. All other types of government are ruled by one or the other form of government. The governments make laws by election and then regulate their execution through the courts. All this is done through the political parties.
Each political party controls its local branches through the use of a hierarchy of rank-and-file representatives. The federal government distributes power and funds through representatives of various parties to meet and make decisions through mandated committees. At the national level, the executive branch makes laws and then implements them through agencies such as the Department of Labor or the Department of Education. When we talk of a “federal government”, we mean the supreme authority over the governed by any number of representative democratic governments or constitutional monarchies in many countries.
A republic is not ruled by any one person. It is a form of government which exists without any form of centralized authority. The term republic comes from Latin roots that mean “of or relating to freedom.” A republic may have a system of direct democracy, a system of indirect democracy, or a mixture of both indirect and direct democracy. In many countries, a democracy exists without a republic; however, a republic is most common in Europe and Latin America.
Both capitalism and socialism are forms of limited-freedom government. A capitalist economy gives individuals more freedom than a socialist economy because capitalism provides opportunities for entrepreneurs unlike socialism. However, in a capitalist economy the ownership of property is more concentrated than in a socialist economy. One example of this is that whereas in a socialist economy, ownership of land and property is more evenly distributed. Also, capitalism and socialism differ when it comes to the regulation of businesses. For example, the presence of a free enterprise system protects the rights of small entrepreneurs.