A government is a group or board of individuals governing an organized society, usually a country. Government structure comes in many forms of government are found in almost every country in the world today. In some countries there exists only a single institution which is responsible for ensuring the maintenance of public order, regulation of local industries and protection of individual rights and properties. Other countries have complex systems with a constitutional monarch as head of state and members of the legislature occupy seats determined by the constitution. Still other countries use hybrid models, with multiparty elections and a directly elected legislature, which still depend on the will of the people to continue with the political system.
It was not until the arrival of the great Britain, from the Norman invasion, that a constitutional convention was established by an act of the parlimentary parliament. This act of assembly made the people of Britain sovereign over their country. This, as time went on, became a model for many countries, particularly France and Spain where peoples began to demand more power from their governments. After the French revolution, there were many revolts throughout Europe against the absolutism of the government and the crown. When the Dutch joined the English and Scottish in putting down the revolutionary movement of the seventeenth century, the French Revolution broke out and spread globally. The institutions built by these generations of Britain’s monarchy, with its tradition of rule by a queen, kept England in an extremely stable government for centuries.
Today we live in what is known as a democracy, which means that government of general assemblies or parliamentary houses are replaced by direct democracy, a form of government where citizens can control major institutions such as government, economy, education and environment through an elective authority. The word democracy comes from Greek words that mean “people” and “rule.” It was named after the Greek ruler, democracy. Today most governments in the world are based on forms of democracy including representative government, mixed government and constitutional monarchy.
The reason why most modern nations have elected governments is because they want to limit the influence of large multinational corporations and their lobbyists in politics. They are able to buy the political parties and use them to further their own interests rather than the public’s. There are two basic types of democracy: aristocratic and bureaucratic. aristocratic democracy is representative democracy, it is ruled by an aristocratic family/clan that rules over the masses, whereas bureaucratic democracy is a democracy that is ruled by ordinary citizens. There are examples of both in modern day Greece.
Many would say that democracy and capitalism are one and the same, however the truth is very different. Capitalism is defined as, “the equal distribution of wealth produced by workers for the benefit of their owners,” whilst democracy is “government by and for the masses.” In terms of economic systems, aristocratic governments typically tax higher incomes, spend less on welfare programs and provide low-interest loans to start new businesses. On the other hand, bureaucratic democratic governments typically tax lower incomes, spend more on welfare programs and provide low interest loans to start new businesses.
In the modern times, it has been noted that “in all European countries, except Russia, the government is decentralized, having a national administration headed by a monarch.” This is unlike monarchies, which are based upon a hereditary line and have a centralized bureaucracy. In monarchies, all power lies with the King or Queen, and all citizens are bound by law. Monarchy is highly hereditary, and the modern British government is an example of this. It also follows a very structured system of checks and balances, making sure that power doesn’t become too concentrated, and balancing checks and balances to ensure the stability of government.