Government is the system of rules and laws that adults make to help them live in peace and safety. Governments are all over the world and people of many different types live under them. Governments vary widely in their structures, but most share the same basic concepts. Governments have existed for thousands of years, and people have thought of lots of ways to organize them. The type of government that exists in a country depends on a mix of factors such as social and cultural conditions, geographic or climate, intellectual or philosophical influences, historical circumstance and more.

The main job of government is to make sure everyone follows the same rules. Governments have lots of other jobs as well, including helping people who can’t care for themselves and creating a structure for making goods and services available to everyone. Governments also make decisions about how much money to raise by taxing its citizens. This money is used to pay for things like schools, police and fire departments, and parks.

People elect members to local city councils, state legislatures and Congress, and these bodies make laws that govern the areas they represent. They also draft budgets that decide how to spend the funds they collect. Governments usually create a wide range of taxes that people must pay, such as income, property and sales taxes.

In the United States, the legislative branch of government is called Congress. It is made up of two houses: the Senate and the House of Representatives. Each state has two senators, and each district has a number of representatives that correspond to its population. When a bill is passed by both chambers, it becomes law after the president signs it. The president may also choose to reject a bill, which is known as a veto. If the president vetoes a bill, it must be re-passed by both chambers with a two-thirds majority in order to become law.

The executive branch, which is led by the President of the United States, makes sure that the laws that Congress passes are followed. The president works with a Cabinet, which is made up of people who each have big jobs that help to run the government. The President also talks to leaders in other countries, which is called diplomacy.

The judicial branch of government helps to interpret and apply the laws that Congress and the executive branches make. It is a little bit like the referee in a sport; it makes sure that all of the laws are being applied fairly and correctly. The judicial branch also hears and makes decisions about legal cases. Governments also have diplomats who communicate with the leaders of other countries, which can help to avoid war, make trade agreements, and exchange cultural or social experiences and knowledge.